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2004) in the historical mining district of Faynan (Biblical Edom) at Khirbat en-Nahas, which is the biggest Iron Age copper-smelting site in the southern Levant. Nevertheless, the ‘C dates from Khirbat en-Nahas give proof of Iron Age occupation already in the early Iron Age (ca. 1200-1000 BCE) and in addition within the 10th-9th centuries BCE. The above date, derived from a human-made agricultural soil layer, is the first independent scientific evidence that rainwater-harvesting agriculture at Horvat Haluqim was carried out rela-tively early within the Iron Age (Bruins and van der Plicht 2004). The bones entered the anthropogenic soil layer resulting from manuring practices by the historical farmers. Thus, a working speculation may be constructed that suggests that throughout the tenth and presumably the 9th centuries BCE, the KEN fortress performed a pivotal role in the exploitation of copper ore and metallic within the Faynan district and that it was a part of an Iron IIA trade network that integrated the early Hazevah fortress (Cohen and Yisrael 1995) on the western facet of the Wadi Arabah with land trade routes resulting in Israel and the Mediterranean and Tell El-Kheleifeh controlling seaborne trade to the south. First, the passageway main between the two units of gate rooms was rigorously crammed with closing walls on each finish of the passage, and a rock fill.

Secondly, the jap Stratum A2b closing wall was fully exposed through the excavations round this a part of the gate revealing the careful work finished to make sure the closure of the passage. The dates from the German Mining Museum (GMM) work at KEN (Hauptmann 2000: 66) have been re-calibrated utilizing Ox-Cal v3.6 in Figure 10.2 right here. To obtain an archaeological ‘signature’ of the fortress complicated, we determined to focus our work on sampling what appeared to be the gate located on the western perimeter of the fortress. A cistern is situated eastwards beneath the fortress, above the western financial institution of nahal Ha’Elah. Most Iron Age settlements in the Negev-Sinai region are characterised by elliptical or irregular formed fortresses, including Horvat Haluqim, Nahal Ha’Elah and the Lower Fortress at Tell el-Qudeirat. Indeed, the oldest date obtained to this point, from the agricultural soil layer at the location of Horvat Haluqim, backs the above picture.

An immediate picture of the phases of smelting revealed. A clearer picture of this suite of dates is introduced within the Bayesian evaluation by Higham et al. The Bayesian analysis of all these dates is presented by Higham et al. The ladies introduced greater average perpetration of verbal/emotional violence, whereas boys are extra perpetrators of sexual violence. Considering all of the completely different theories proposed for the elliptical Iron Age fortresses and related settlements, briefly presented in the introduction, evidently the instructed chronologies and historical associations by Cohen and Haiman are the most unlikely, while the 11th and early 10th centuries BCE seem most possible. Considering that the bi-directionality of violence is a particular characteristic of the affective-sexual relations between younger individuals, the instruments should be sensitive to evaluate each the violence suffered and perpetrated. As will probably be seen in the dialogue of the following strata (A2b-A2a), contemplating the appreciable vitality that went into the development of the KEN fortress, it is extremely puzzling that the KEN fortress seems to have had a comparatively quick-lived use. Taken collectively, KEN represents a unique document of a Near Japanese Iron Age metal manufacturing manufacturing facility town.